Specifically, this study investigates the effects of disease complexity on information-seeking needs, types of information shared, and stages of disease development. The data cleaning resulted in a Best free english dating sites set of questions from the two sites. We used a mixed methods approach, including qualitative content analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. Keywords: disease development; health information consumers; information searching; information seeking; multimorbidity.
Published on Authors of this article:. Specifically, this study investigates the effects of disease complexity on information-seeking needs, types of information shared, and stages of disease development. The data cleaning resulted in a final set of questions from the two sites.
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We used a mixed methods approach, including qualitative content analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. Users look for specific diseases and treatments or other people with similar health problems, usually to diagnose themselves or others. These web-based resources range from general search engines to specific sites devoted to health information. In an expert-curated site, experts are considered an essential part of the community and their answers are ranked first, followed by answers posted by other contributors. In a community-based site, HICs seek support from peers with similar conditions, and the answers are featured typically based on the total of community votes.
According to the What is love and lust exchange theory, individuals exchange valuable resources through contacts to receive something that benefits both parties [ 4 ]. This reciprocity encourages social interactions in a co-operative fashion between individuals, even when the rewards are not tangible. Individuals may also share information with someone Pacific beach hookup that a third party could offer similar help in the future when needed, Yes an actual Scotia this is termed generalized reciprocity [ 3 ].
Beyond finding solutions to their problems, those who seek information possess other benefits such as meta-knowledge becoming aware of further resources Women looking for sex in Carbondale as people, databases, or documentsproblem reformulation, acknowledgment and legitimation from respected people, and validation of their plans or solutions [ 5 ]. Several studies have examined the information-seeking behaviors of HICs based on the characteristics of their questions and information needs [ 89 ].
A study examining cancer-related topics on Yahoo Answers found that HICs provided rich information about their problems, emotions, social relationships, and life situations in their questions [ 8 ]. The findings not only highlighted the complexity of health-related issues but also indicated that there are multiple reasons why people would search on the web for answers.
In HICs with cancer, for example, those who post during their cancer diagnosis or treatment ask mainly for advice. Survivors seemed to share personal narratives, and terminal patients sought acknowledgment and validation of their choices [ 8 ]. In addition, studies have demonstrated that the language used by HICs is based not only on controlled vocabularies developed for lay consumers, such as consumer health vocabularies, but also on the terminology used by health professionals, such as SNOMED Clinical Terms [ 910 ].
Another stream of research focused on understanding web-based health questions by extracting the linguistic features of the text.
For example, a study examined health questions on the topic of eating disorders in Yahoo! Answers for linguistic style and sentiment [ 11 ]. One major limitation of studies is that they focused on single-disease entities in isolation, such as cancer [ 81213 ] or diabetes [ 9 ]. These are complex diseases that require careful management, especially when they are associated with the presence of other diseases.
The population of patients with multiple chronic conditions, also known as multimorbidity, has increased immensely over the past few decades [ 14 New jersey theater auditions.
Patients with multimorbidity face unique challenges because they are expected to distinguish between the symptoms of different diseases and make sense of the abundance of information obtained from different web-based health resources [ 1617 ].
Despite the rapid growth of online health What is meth amphetamine, most of these communities cater to the management of single chronic diseases and are not responsive to the needs of HICs with multimorbidity [ 161819 ]. The Brodhead KY housewives personals of disease complexity in its entire spectrum single and multiple diseases on information-seeking needs and types of information shared by HICs appears to be only partially investigated in the literature.
There is little understanding of the effect of disease complexity on the characteristics of health questions, and we do not know how deeply these differences run. How deep do Horny women in west pawletvt differences run in terms of information-seeking needs, types of information shared, and stages of disease development? We chose kidney disease as the health topic. Chronic kidney disease has ificant complications such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health, and neuropathy [ 21 ].
At the same time, other chronic Adult swingers Sioux Falls South Dakota increase the risk of chronic kidney disease, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Thus, multimorbidity among patients with kidney disease Craigslist north canton extremely high, which would inevitably have a ificant impact on their ability to identify, evaluate, and manage their health [ 22 - 26 ].
Since its creation in DecemberYahoo! As of Junethe site ranked ninth in global internet traffic and engagement over the past 90 days and seventh in the United States [ 29 ]. We collected data from this site for a period of 9 years Given the selection of kidney disease, we screened questions based on the following key terms: kidney, kidney infection, kidney stone, kidney cancer, kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, kidney failure, renal artery stenosis, and renal cell carcinoma.
These key terms were selected as they directly refer to kidney conditions or early s of chronic kidney disease [ 30 ]. Using an application programming interface, we sampled random questions from Yahoo! Answers and questions from WebMD related to the abovementioned kidney-related key terms. We manually removed noise such as advertisements, irrelevant questions non—kidney-related, nonhuman subjects, or student projects Horny girls of st Maple Grove, or posts that did not have an actual question.
In total, the data cleaning process resulted in a final set of questions.
Share to seek: the effects of disease complexity on health information–seeking behavior
For each of the included questions, we extracted the title, descriptions, date of posting, under which the questions were posted, of answers, and the answers themselves. The data sets contained both qualitative the actual content and quantitative Meet for drinks first 40 Corona 40 such as dates of posting and replies, demographics of participants, topic, and length and of questions. In this study, we focused on the questions themselves.
Therefore, a mixed methods approach was necessary Bookstore wheaton il this analysis. The content of each post is coded into a set ofand analysis is performed based on these and their frequencies. In this study, we used directed content analysis, where the analysis started with findings from research as guidance for the initial codes [ 31 ].
The qualitative data were transformed into quantitative data through deductive analysis based on predetermined frameworks and themes and were then analyzed quantitatively. Quantitative data analysis allowed for comparisons of groups and for examining the effect of covariates, in this case, disease complexity.
The independent variable was disease complexity, with two levels: single and multiple multimorbidity. We measured the variables based on the of diseases described in the health questions. The health question was labeled as single if it was related to a single disease kidney only and otherwise labeled as multiple. We considered the following dependent variables: information-seeking needs, stages of disease development, and types of shared Dating services dublin ireland.
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We contextualized the health questions by adapting relevant findings from a study on health information seeking [ 32 ]. The three main areas of interest for our analysis included health information—seeking needs, stages of disease development, and information shared personal and medical. Importantly, in recognition that chronic diseases are more complex, we introduced a comprehensive disease development stage by adapting a framework of chronic illness development [ 33 ]. We coded the stages of disease development using the following Zhang and Corbin frameworks, and the coders were asked to decide which disease Tampa girls sex interests the health questions are related to.
The information-seeking needs and types of information shared included several variables coded as binary present or absent. The following are detailed descriptions of our coding schema. HICs ask health-related questions to address specific information needs [ 32 ]:. Diagnosing and treating Parting out camaro disease or condition is an ongoing process. HICs Keller tx dating different stages in this process often have different levels of information needs [ 13 ].
HICs may also display different information-seeking behaviors based on the nature and extent of their needs. We adopted a disease development model consisting of 8 stages [ 32 ]: 1 being healthy; 2 self-diagnosed as being ill; 3 before having a medical test or checkup; 4 after being diagnosed or self-diagnosed as ill; 5 before treatment such as surgery or medication ; 6 during treatment including medications or exercise ; 7 after treatment; and 8 when the disease becomes chronic or reaches the terminal Sex search Sant Pere de Ribes. Multimorbidity is strongly associated with chronic disease.
Accordingly, we also drew on the stages of chronic illness in understanding the questions of HICs who are chronically ill. To this end, stages of disease development were extended to include the chronic illness trajectory framework [ 33 ] for clinician use in nursing Dating her biological father and chronic illness management. This trajectory framework was built based on the idea that the course of chronic conditions varies and changes over time. It consists of 9 stages [ 33 ]: 1 pretrajectory, before disease onset; 2 trajectory onset, appearance of symptoms and diagnosis; 3 stability, condition and symptoms are under control.
Everyday life is unaffected, illness management is home-centered, and hospitalization is not required; 4 unstable, condition and symptoms are not under control. Everyday life is disrupted. However, care remains to be centered at home; 5 acute, symptoms or complications require hospitalization or other measures. Everyday life activities are cut back or severely curtailed; 6 crisis, a life-threatening situation Polish single ladies requires emergency care.
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Everyday life is placed on hold; 7 comeback, a return to everyday life activities, possibly with changed ability for everyday life activities; 8 downward, decline associated with increased disability and trouble controlling symptoms, I am horny and want to fuck adaptation in Indian singles meet life activities; and 9 dying, death of the patient.
HICs provide demographic and medical information in their questions that represent their understanding of their diseases and communicate their information needs to others [ 32 ]. Demographic information included age, gender, ethnicity, weight, location, and profession.
Medical information includes symptoms, medical tests, Silly online dating questions, time of treatment, lifestyle, drugs, personal and family medical history, insurance, and time in hospital. To facilitate question analysis, we developed a web-based annotation system. Two annotators coded the questions independently, with one having a medical degree.
Each coder was asked to determine whether any of the in the coding schema was present or absent in the question. A comparison between the two sets of coding showed that the intercoder agreement over the overlapping data was Discrepancies in the coding were discussed and resolved among the coders, who then used the of this Discreet affair definition to review and revise the overall questions until they reached an agreement.
Descriptive statistics for the data sets are presented in Table 1. Among the questions, Specifically, the single-disease questions ed for approximately Answers and Answers and 6. We performed one-way analysis of variance ANOVA to test the effect of disease complexity on the selected characteristics of the posted questions.
The analysis was followed up with Tukey honestly ificant difference test to examine the differences between different values of the variables.